War Time Peace Time My Time: Dorice Greenfield
The Acropolis, which literally means ´´a city on the heights´´, is a citadel whose currently surviving structures were mostly built during the 5th century BCE in honor of Athena, the patron goddess of Athens. It functioned as a sacred precinct that contained the city´s most important religious and municipal structures, many of which have remained relatively intact for over 2,000 years. The Propylaea (the gateway to the Acropolis), the Parthenon (the principal shrine to the goddess), the Erechtheion (a shrine that supposedly houses the burial grounds of mythical Athenian kings), and the Temple of Athena Nike all survive to this day, and for these reasons, the Acropolis is perhaps the definitive and most eloquent expression of classical architecture, if not of the classical form itself. Naturally, like many other works of its type and influence, the structures on the Acropolis embody certain traditions, but they also depart from some traditions and also transformed others. Indeed, just as the Acropolis is Athens´ most striking feature, it is also a perfect representative of the city´s golden age, both in terms of classical style and civilization as a whole. It´s no wonder that people continue to view the Acropolis as both a portal to antiquity but also a spot with living structures whose importance continues to reverberate to this day. The architectural complex on the Athenian Acropolis is universally acclaimed as one of the most outstanding achievements of western civilization, but within that group of iconic buildings there is no doubt that the Parthenon is the most famous and impressive. The Doric and Ionic forms that are the basis of classical architecture, and as applied to the Parthenon, still resonate in the modern world today, as it has done throughout the centuries since its completion. It was built to the highest possible standards at the time, and no expense was spared on either the constituent parts or its decoration. Of course, gi 1. Language: English. Narrator: Colin Fluxman. Audio sample: http://samples.audible.de/bk/acx0/075035/bk_acx0_075035_sample.mp3. Digital audiobook in aax.
In the Archaic and Classical periods, Rhodes often stood as a prime exemplar of the highs and lows of its fellow Greek cities, and as the largest island of the Dodecanese, Rhodes’ history is largely in line with that of the rest of those islands. Rhodes was first colonized by the Greeks of the Dorian tribe around the eightth century BC, and it aligned with its fellow Dorian cities on the surrounding islands and the mainland of Asia Minor to form the so-called Doric Hexapolis. Rhodes would reach the zenith of its power in the Hellenistic period following the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC. Even as the rest of the city-states waned compared to the much larger kingdoms of Alexander’s successors in Egypt and Asia, Rhodes would come to the forefront as a main power in the Greek world, standing toe-to-toe with these Hellenistic kingdoms. Rhodes was for a time the foremost naval power in the Eastern Mediterranean, and one of the most powerful and richest cities in the world. It was during this time that the Colossus of Rhodes, one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, was built on the island to celebrate Rhodes’ equally monumental triumph over the armies of Demetrius the Besieger. Rhodes also gained a foothold on other islands, and an extensive presence in Asia Minor. With the rise of Rome, Rhodes, along with the rest of the Greek world, lost power, and it was gradually integrated into the Roman sphere of influence as an ally before finally being annexed into the empire, but after the partition and collapse of the ancient Roman Empire, in the Middle Ages Rhodes would share in both the fortunes and vicissitudes of Rome’s successor state, the Byzantine Empire. Along with the Byzantines, Rhodes would face off first against the Arabs from the east and then European Crusaders from the west. As the Byzantine Empire continued to lose power and chaos spread in its former holdings, Rhodes would eventually be occupied by the Knights Hosp 1. Language: English. Narrator: Mark Norman. Audio sample: http://samples.audible.de/bk/acx0/119277/bk_acx0_119277_sample.mp3. Digital audiobook in aax.
Even if science and religion work together to break down barriers and expand the understanding of the universe, there is another battle on a different dimension that we need to examine. Knowledge without wisdom can be even more dangerous when coupled with someone talented in rhetoric. Rhetoric in this audiobook is defined as the use of knowledge and beautiful speech to achieve a political objective. Philosophy is defined as the ´´love of wisdom”, and the search for it among the rhetoric will prove difficult. I must admit that it took me many years to be able to understand and verbalize this dimension. Trying to understand the difference between an argument based in laws and one that is almost all based in laws is often impossible without looking at the personal motivations and character. Often, this cannot be known in time and can only be studied after the fact. This audiobook will analyze some key moments in history, starting with the master of this topic, Socrates. Thanks to Plato, the words of the master of logic have been preserved, and we can examine the battle he fought between wisdom and rhetoric and the impact of his loss on the world. The subtleness of this loss is symbolized on the cover of this audiobook by the difference between the Ionic and Doric order. The Erechtheion is an Ionic-order temple built by the enlightened of Athens. The six Karyatides staring out to the ocean depicting the women of Athens carrying the weight of society while their men were defending Athens from foreign invasion. In his early life, it was Socrates who carved these six images of his wife, the wife who was stolen from him by a Spartan as he was away defending his country. It was this materialistic society who built the monstrous Parthenon, with none of this subtle symbolism of the value of women to the enlightened Greeks. 1. Language: English. Narrator: Kent Bradshaw. Audio sample: http://samples.audible.de/bk/acx0/139972/bk_acx0_139972_sample.mp3. Digital audiobook in aax.
Modern perceptions of classical Greece are almost invariably based on Athens and Sparta, but there are perhaps few areas as consistently undervalued as the island of Rhodes. Although solidly part of the Greek world for as long as there has been one, Rhodes, located just off the coast of Asia Minor, was also from its earliest times a port opening to the civilizations of the Eastern Mediterranean, and Rhodes was involved in every significant moment in ancient Greek history. The island often played a key role in world events that far surpassed its small size and at one point even stood side by side with much larger kingdoms as one of the main powers in the Greek world. In the Archaic and Classical periods, Rhodes often stood as a prime exemplar of the highs and lows of its fellow Greek cities, and as the largest island of the Dodecanese, Rhodes’ history is largely in line with that of the rest of those islands. Rhodes was first colonized by the Greeks of the Dorian tribe around the eighth century BCE, and it aligned with its fellow Dorian cities on the surrounding islands and the mainland of Asia Minor to form the so-called Doric Hexapolis. After the Ionian revolt near the end of the sixth century BCE, Rhodes, along with other islands, was in the path of the Persian fleet that crossed the Aegean to face off against the Greeks in the Persian Wars. In the aftermath of the Persian Wars, along with the rest of the islands and with Greek Asia Minor, Rhodes was subsumed into the Athenian alliance, which would soon become the Athenian Empire. However, Athens would soon lose its power, and around the end of the Peloponnesian War against Sparta, its hold on its allies would wane. 1. Language: English. Narrator: Mark Norman. Audio sample: http://samples.audible.de/bk/acx0/103139/bk_acx0_103139_sample.mp3. Digital audiobook in aax.